While the exosome biogenesis pathway is relatively linear at its crux, exosome uptake is a completely different story.
That’s because, after their release into the extracellular environment, the pathways for exosomal uptake are multifaceted.
First and foremost, exosome uptake can either be a local or distant process. In other words, while neighboring cells are able to interact with or utilize the newly released exosomes, the exosomes may be transported to more distant sites via the bloodstream as well.
In either case, the mechanisms for exosome uptake thereafter are even more diverse. They include everything from vesicle-cell fusion to endocytosis to important ligand-receptor interactions (Diagram 1.2).
Diagram 1.2: Exosome Uptake & Release