Why EVs as Biomarkers?
So why are extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, such useful biomarkers then?
The major reason for this is quite simple. It’s because they’re present in virtually all the biofluids you can think of (Diagram 1.5). Extracellular vesicles can be found in fluids such as:
- Serum, plasma
- Seminal fluid
- Breast milk
This ubiquity makes EV-based diagnostics that much more practical in terms of ease of use, speed, and minimally invasive procedures.
Moreover, EVs can be used as biomarkers for more than just initial diagnostic purposes. These vesicles, including exosomes, can act as overall prognostic indicators as well as predictors of response to treatment.
Consequently, EVs can play a role in the move away from a one-size-fits-all approach to treatment.
Diagram 1.5: Human Body Fluids Where EVs Are Found.